(Brand names in India: Amantrel, Parkitidin) How does Amantadine act? Amantadine is a another friend of levodopa (remember: its other friend is entacapone). While it can decrease the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, it works best when it is given to support the action of levodopa. While Entacapone can sometimes increase the side-effects of levodopa, Amantadine … Read more

MAO-B inhibitors: Rasagiline, Selegiline & Safinamide

Remember: Levodopa’s best friends are: Entacapone & Amantadine. The medications discussed here (the MAO-B inhibitors) are also supposedly “friends of levodopa/dopamine”. Except, two of them,  like the older brothers Karamazov, these medications are somewhat useful but full of flaws. These medications probably belong to an older generation. I use them very sparingly, if at all. … Read more

Anticholinergics – Trihexyphenidyl, benztropine, biperiden etc.

Anticholinergics: Trihexyphenidyl, Benztropine. Brandnames in India: Pacitane, Parkin etc… How do these medications work? Dopamine has an enemy in the brain, called Acetylcholine. Acetylcholine actually is a good chemical with a lot of beneficial effects, but one of the things it does is to reverse some of the actions of Dopamine. These medications are anticholinergic. … Read more

Dopamine Agonists: Ropinirole, Pramipexole, Rotigotine

(Brand names in India: Pramipex, Pramipex ER, Ropark, Ropark XL) How do dopamine agonists work? These chemicals are imitators. They look just like Dopamine itself. They attach themselves to the same sites that Dopamine usually attaches itself. Therefore, they produce similar effects in the brain as Dopamine and relieve the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Use/Advantages: … Read more

Entacapone & Tolcapone

(Brand names in India: Syncapone, Entacom plus) How do Entacapone & Tolcapone act? Entcapone is a friend of levodopa. It prevents the breakdown of levodopa by inhibiting an enzyme called COMT. The name of the enzyme is not important, what is important is that entacapone protects levodopa. Therefore, it makes the levodopa stay longer in the … Read more


(Brand names: Sinemet, Syndopa, Syndopa plus, Syndopa CR, Tidomet etc) Levodopa is the MOST POWERFUL, POSSIBLY BEST medication for Parkinson’s disease. If Parkinson’s was a jungle, Levodopa would be an Elephant. It is the Optimus Prime of Transformers, the Mount Everest of mountains… I could go on… How does levodopa work? In a very simple … Read more